The s are stark - for the first time in India's recent history, not only was there a decline in the female labour participation rate, but also a shrinking of the total of women in the workforce. As India poises itself to increase economic growth and foster development, it is necessary to ensure that its labour force becomes fully inclusive of women," says the studyauthored by Luis A Andres, Basab Dasgupta, George Joseph, Vinoj Abraham and Maria Correia. So what s for the unprecedented and puzzling drop in women's participation in the workforce - at a time when India's economy has grown at a steady pace? But they may not be the only reasons. Marriage, for example, does affect the rate of participation of women in the workforce. But in villages, the workforce participation rate of married women has been found to be higher than that of unmarried women - whereas in the cities, the situation is reversed.
But they may not be the only reasons.
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Relevant curricula -- Learning materials should be relevant to the girl's background and be in the local language. As India poises itself to increase economic growth and foster development, it is necessary to ensure that its labour force becomes fully inclusive of women," says the femaoeauthored by Luis A Andres, Basab Dasgupta, George Joseph, Vinoj Abraham and Maria Correia.
They should also avoid reproducing gender stereotypes. Also, school hours should be flexible so children can help at home and still attend classes. Panel 14 Girls' education: A lifeline to development Education is one of the most critical areas of empowerment for women, as both the Cairo femzle Beijing conferences affirmed.
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Read also. Also, casual workers - mainly women - drop out of the workforce when wages increased for regular earners - mainly men - leading to the stabilisation of family incomes. Experience in scores of countries shows the importance, among other things, of: Parental and community involvement -- Families and communities must be important partners with schools in developing curriculum and managing children's education. Between andcombined femal and secondary enrolment for girls in developing countries rose from 38 per cent to 68 per cent -- with particularly high rates in East Asia 83 per cent and Latin America 87 per cent.
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Schools close to home, with women teachers -- Many parents worry about girls travelling long distances on their own. In India, for example, the infant mortality rate of babies whose mothers have received primary education is half that of children whose mothers are illiterate. What would it take to improve girls' access to education? But in villages, the workforce participation rate of married women has been found to be higher than that of unmarried women - whereas in the cities, the situation is reversed.
The s are stark - for the first time in India's recent history, not only was there a decline in the female labour participation rate, but also a shrinking of the total of women in the workforce.
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But there has been a general drop in the rate in recent years, indicating that irrespective of educational attainments, "the incentive for women to participate in the workforce has declined over this period". It is also an area that offers some of the clearest examples of discrimination women suffer. Indeed, the dividend for educational investment is often higher for women than men. However, there are also important benefits Edjcated society as a Educared. An educated woman will also be more productive at work -- and better paid.
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Photo: A girl from the Miao indigenous group attends primary school in China. Marriage, for example, does affect the rate of participation of women in the workforce. But there is still some way to go.
Over recent decades there has certainly been ificant progress in girls' education. Studies from a of countries suggest that an extra year of schooling will increase a woman's future earnings by about 15 per efmale, compared with 11 per cent for a man. The study says there has been a "larger response to income changes among the poor, rather than the wealthy, by sending children to school".
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Offering girls basic education is one sure way of giving them much greater power -- of enabling them to make genuine choices over the kinds of lives they wish to lead. Preparation for school -- Girls do best when they receive early childhood care, which enhances their self-esteem and prepares them for school. An educated woman has the skills, information and self-confidence that she needs to be a better parent, worker and citizen. An educated woman is, for example, likely to marry at a later age and have fewer children.
Where possible, there should be stipends and scholarships to compensate families for the loss of girls' household labour.
Low-cost and flexible timetables -- Basic education should be free or cost very little. ificantly, rising aspirations and relative prosperity may be actually responsible for putting a large cohort of women out of work in India. This is not a luxury.
The lowest rate of participation is among those who had secured school and high school education in the cities and villages. Remember, the largest drop has been in the villages. Cross-country studies show that an extra year of schooling for girls reduces fertility rates by 5 to 10 per cent. In the least developed countries enrolment rates are only 47 per cent at the primary level and 12 per cent at the secondary level.
So what s for the unprecedented and puzzling drop in women's participation in the workforce undian at a time when India's cemale has grown at a steady pace? After studying the relationship with the female labour participation rate and levels of educational achievements, the researchers found that having a high school-level education was "not found to be an incentive for women" to work. Many parents also prefer to have daughters taught by women.
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Among children not attending school there are twice as many girls as boys, and among illiterate adults there are twice as many women as men. And the rate is actually highest among illiterates and college graduates. After calculating the labour force participation rates and educational participation rates young women in schools the researchers believe that one plausible explanation for the drop in the participation rate among rural girls and women aged is the recent expansion of secondary education and rapidly changing social norms leading to "more working age young females opting to continue their education rather than the labour force early".
And the children of an educated mother are more likely to survive.