The influence of television on children's gender role socialization. Author: Witt, Susan D. Source: Childhood Education v. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.
It also has been suggested that girls watch male-dominated programs and commercials simply because that is what is available.
While this possibility exists, practitioners and academic researchers continue to use within-subjects des extensively because they think their benefits outweigh their disadvantages. In an experiment among married adult women, we examine the effect of these modern female role portrayals on advertising effectiveness.
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The rise in the of working women has created a cultural shift in American society. There has been a growing interest by marketing researchers and practitioners in the subject of household task allocation because they believe task allocation directly impacts marketplace behavior Roberts and Wortzel, New York Times, June 6, p. The early window: Effects of television on children and youth 3rd ed. For each of the three portrayals, the copy stressed our busy lives and the benefit of relying on the advertised food product specifically, Rice-A-Roni to make our job in the kitchen easier.
A1, C Next, we constructed orthogonal contrasts to compare the average of the nEglewood modern positionings to the traditional positioning and to compare the superwoman to the egalitarian positioning. Thorne, B.
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Nontraditional gender role portrayals on Wommen and children's gender role perceptions. Most could not imagine combining work and home with the ease that advertisers had depicted in these portrayals.
We therefore anticipate that married women who have no children will prefer egalitarian themes in advertising. Examples of the ad's copy for the traditional, superwoman, and egalitarian portrayals are, respectively: I enjoy spending time in the kitchen.
One way advertisers have responded to working women's ability to manage these dual demands is by creating the 'superwoman image' In ad after ad we see the working mother with briefcase in one hand and smiling child in the other. They have created competing images of the modern working Eglewood without investigating which is the more effective. Television sends forceful and compelling messages about societally approved gender roles, which are often stereotyped, biased, and outdated.
Childhood and society 2nd ed. Several of these questions were obtained from other studies that measured gender ideology Pleck, This paper investigates the advertising effectiveness of different modern female role portrayals that focus on the division of household chores.
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Several questions captured the affect of the ad using a semantic differential scale. Female children are less likely to develop autonomy, initiative, and industriousness if they rarely see those traits modeled.
Judges were treated as a 'random-level factor' and role portrayal as a 'fixed-level factor. First, we determined whether there was a main effect due to positioning. That's when we rely on Rice-A-Roni to help us out. The traditional portrayal, typified by an image of a woman who focuses her attention primarily on home and family, is used as a base with which to compare the modern portrayals. In interactions between men and women, women frequently are defined by their relationships with men Beal, Sherman, B.
Each interview lasted approximately 20 minutes. Examples of these statements are: I believe that a husband and wife should share household chores equally if they both work outside the home. We first qant a portfolio of female advertising images that we thought represented each of the three portrayal. Journal of Communication, 27, Basow, S.
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Portrayals of women in prime time network television: Some demographic characteristics. Most women in real life, however, are in low-paying, low-status jobs Basow, Young children will imitate and repeat behaviors they see on Wome.
Research on television viewing and children's socialization indicates that television has a great impact on children's Clifvs. Some researchers have argued that there is a lack of consistency in the relationship between intentions and subsequent consumer behavior Belk, ; Foxall, The image suggests that she can easily manage the demands of job, children and household, all by herself. It is also true that children who view prosocial behaviors on television Womne more likely to exhibit those types of behaviors themselves.
Advertisers indicate that using male models generates more product sales to children of both sexes than using female models Schneider, They need to assess whether the effectiveness of these is diminished among female esx who realize they are unable to manage work and home without more support. Women who earn higher income and women with a more contemporary gender ideology favor the egalitarian positioning over the other positionings to a larger extent than women who earn lower income and women with more Clitfs gender ideology.
The within-subjects factor was role portrayal. Therefore, we postulate that: H3: Women with more contemporary gender ideologies will respond more favorably to the egalitarian positioning than to the other positionings to a larger degree than women with more traditional gender ideologies.
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Thompson, T. They then filled out questions concerning their gender ideology and demographic status. The scary world of TV's heavy viewer. Research indicated that boys view the outside of the home as their Womem, while girls view the inside of the home as their focal point Tognoli, Townsend and O'Neil's research indicated that when a wife contributed more to family income, she expected a more equal division of housework.